FANDOM


地理分佈Edit

官方地位Edit

Rangyan is the national language and one of the two official languages (together with English) of the Kingdom of Rangya. The standard form of the Rangyan language is called "standard language" (Template:Dl lang), which was initially based on the Ponto dialect (Template:Dl lang) on the main island. The standard Rangyan is taught in schools and used on news and in official communications. The regulatory body for Rangyan is the National Institute of the Rangyan Language (Template:Dl lang), which is a special body of the Rangyan Ministry of Culture, Education, Science and Technology (Template:Dl lang).

方言Edit

There are three main dialects spoken in Rangya. They are

The formation of dialects is due to the long history of internal isolation of the population living on isolated islands in Rangya. Dialects typically differ in terms of pitch accent, inflectional morphology, vocabulary, and particle usage.

歸融語Edit

Kuiyungyo or Kuiyung Creole (Template:Dl lang), meaning "mixed language", is a creole language derived mainly from Dutch, Rangyan, English and Indonesian, which was originally spoken by the Kuiyung community of the Dutch colony of Rangya. It is now considered as a critically endangered language spoken only by very few people in Rangya.

This is the Kuiyungyo version of Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Article 1) compared with Dutch, English and Rangyan.

Kuiyungyo Olle mensen zelfhevul en reten in heleik en vrei heborenorden.
Zeinun verstont en heweten met behiftitzein, en brudershop tu hêst in elkonder yehens zihedrohenshut.
Dutch Alle mensen worden vrij en gelijk in waardigheid en rechten geboren.
Zij zijn begiftigd met verstand en geweten, en behoren zich jegens elkander in een geest van broederschap te gedragen.
English All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.
They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Romanised
Rangyan
Mogi oro wi bomün yu jiyu'i rü tai tsonyem ta gwenri ti bengtüng'i rü.
Oro wi riseng ta rangshim ye thenpyuim kibemotü tai dungpo tu tsengjin yo mobim hangdungnusü.

語音Edit

輔音 Edit

以下是琅野語輔音音素。

雙唇 齒齦 硬顎 軟顎 聲門
鼻音 m n ŋ1
塞音 不送氣 p b t d k g
送氣
擦音 s z2 h3
塞擦 不送氣 ts dz4
送氣 tsʰ4
流音 ɾ~l5
近音 w j
  1. /ŋ/ 只出現在音節韻尾。
  2. /s, z/ 在 /i, j/ 前顎化成 [ɕ, ʑ]
  3. /h/ 在 /i, j/ 前顎化成 [ç]; 並在 /u, w/ 前雙唇化成 [ɸ]
  4. /ts, dz, tsʰ/ 在 /i, j/ 前顎化成 [tɕ, dʑ, tɕʰ]
  5. /ɾ/ 當聲母時是齒齦閃音 [ɾ]; 當韻尾時是 [l]。

元音Edit

單元音Edit

i1 ʉ u2
半開 ɛ ɔ
a
  1. /i/ 在軟顎韻尾 /ŋ, k̚/ 前要發成 /ɪ/
  2. /u/ 在軟顎韻尾 /ŋ, k̚/ 前要發成 /ʊ/

雙元音Edit

在琅野語中,半元音 /j/ 和 /w/ 有時被認為是雙元音或三元音的一部份,而不是單獨輔音音素。這是由於半元音可以存在於聲母之後,而其他輔音卻不可以,又或是由於半元音在諺文結構中被視為元音。

j- w- -i
ja wa
ɔɪ
ju1 uɪ~wi2
  1. /ju/ 在軟顎韻尾 /ŋ, k̚/ 前要發成 /jʊ/
  2. 在開音節中,/uɪ/ 在輔音後要發成降音雙元音 [uɪ]; 當 /uɪ/ 是個獨立音節,或者在閉音節中,就要發成升音雙元音 [wi]。

三元音Edit

j- w-
jaɪ waɪ
jeɪ weɪ

位置同位異音 Edit

琅野語的輔音有兩個主要的位置同位異音,分別是聲母和韻尾。聲母同位異音在音節開頭,而韻尾同位異音則在音節結尾。

音素 p t k ɾ
聲母同位異音 p t k ɾ
韻尾同位異音 l

在音節結尾,所有塞音 [p, t, k] 都要發成不爆破的同位異音 [p̚, t̚, k̚]。而韻尾 [ɾ] 則是流音 [l].

語音組合法Edit

琅野語最複雜的音節結構是 輔-介-元-輔。第一個 是音節聲母; 是半元音介音 /j/ 或 /w/; 是元音; 第二個 是音節韻尾。除了 /ŋ/,所有輔音都能當音節聲母,而音節韻尾卻只能是 /m, n, ŋ, p, t, k, s, l/。

以下是琅野語所有的韻母 (介-元-輔)。

韻母 韻尾
(沒韻尾) m n ŋ p t k s l
單元音
韻腹
a a am an ap at ak as al
ɛ ɛ ɛm ɛn ɛŋ ɛp ɛt ɛk ɛs ɛl
ɔ ɔ ɔm ɔn ɔŋ ɔp ɔt ɔk ɔs ɔl
u u um un ʊŋ up ut ʊk us ul
ʉ ʉ ʉm ʉn əŋ ʉp ʉt ək ʉs ʉl
i i im in ɪŋ ip it ɪk is il
雙元音
韻腹
ja ja jam jan jaŋ jap jat jak jas jal
jɛm jɛn jɛŋ jɛp jɛt jɛk jɛs jɛl
jɔm jɔn jɔŋ jɔp jɔt jɔk jɔs jɔl
ju ju jum jun jʊŋ jup jut jʊk jus jul
wa wa wan waŋ wat wak was wal
wɛn wɛŋ wɛt wɛk wɛs wɛl
wi wi1 win wɪŋ wit wɪk wis wil
ɔɪ ɔɪ
2
三元音
韻腹
jaɪ jaɪ
jeɪ jeɪ
waɪ waɪ
weɪ weɪ
  1. 在當獨立音節或在韻尾 /n, t̚, s, l/ 前發成 [wi]; 在韻尾 /ŋ, k̚/ 前發成 [wɪ]
  2. 在開音節的聲母後發成 [uɪ]。

/wam/, /wɛm/, /wim/, /wap/, /wɛp/, /wip/ 是為了音譯外來詞而添加的韻母。

元音和諧Edit

歷史上,琅野語的音韻曾有很強的元音和諧特性。在古代琅野語,不僅屈折和派生詞綴按照主要詞根的元音而改變,甚至固有詞也堅持元音和諧特性。然而,現代琅野語已不再嚴格遵守這規則。在現代琅野語,元音和諧僅適用於某些詞類,如象聲詞和感嘆詞。

琅野語的元音分為三類:陽性韻,陰性韻和中性韻。元音分類大概按照元音的發音高度來區分。互換陽性韻與陰性韻通常會產生不同含義的細微差別。陽性韻聽起來有「快、熱、乾、硬、堅實、集中或侵略」等感覺,而陰性韻聽起來有「慢、冷、濕、軟,單薄,瀰漫或寧靜」等感覺。

單元音 雙元音 三元音
陽性韻 a, ɔ ja, wa, aɪ, jɔ, ɔɪ jaɪ, waɪ
陰性韻 ɛ, u jɛ, wɛ, eɪ, ju, uɪ~wɪ jeɪ, weɪ
中性韻 i, ʉ

音高重音Edit

琅野語的音高重音能以兩種音高高度模式來表達。在這表示方式下,每個音節都可分為「高」、「低」兩種音高。

  1. 如果重音在第一音節,第一音節為高音,而其他音節全是低音:高低低……
  2. 如果重音不在第一音節,第一音節為低音,而由緊隨的音節開始直到重音的那個音節都是高音,餘下的音節為低音:低高低低……、低高高低低……、低高高高低低……
  3. 如果詞中沒有重音,第一音節為低音,而其他音節全是高音:低高高…… 這高音延續到沒重音的後綴語法助詞上,不過如果後綴助詞是接在有重音的詞語之後,則為低音。

下表列出音高例子。在每個音高類別前的數字代表了最後的高音是在第幾個音節上。

音高類別 例詞 詞義
(0) 低高高... kigomi Template:Lang
(1) 低低... khophi Template:Lang 咖啡
(2) 低低低... jin'ai Template:Lang 塵埃
(3) 低高高低低... asobeda Template:Lang 他/她/它/牠
(4) 低高高高低低... aneruminun Template:Lang

語法Edit

單詞詞類及片語詞類Edit

名詞Edit

琅野語沒有語法上的數量、性別或冠詞。因此,琅野語的名詞都沒有屈折變化。名詞 iku (Template:Dl lang) 可以翻譯為 "dog", "dogs", "a dog", "the dog", "some dogs" 等等,視情況而定。然而,琅野語語法有敬語系統,因此名詞會有敬語變體。名詞加上敬語前綴 ya- (Template:Dl lang) 形成敬語形態。下面列出幾個例子。

一般形態 敬語形態 詞義
kao (Template:Dl lang) ya-kao (Template:Dl lang) 丈夫
nori (Template:Dl lang) ya-nori (Template:Dl lang) 名字
bu (Template:Dl lang) ya-bu (Template:Dl lang) 眼睛
hiku (Template:Dl lang) ya-hiku (Template:Dl lang) 體毛

琅野語不區分可數和不可數名詞,但有少數名詞可通過疊詞形態形成集體名詞,例如:oro (Template:Dl lang) 「人」和 orooro (Template:Dl lang) "人們"。然而,不是所有名詞都能重疊的。表示多於一個東西的名詞在琅野語中被視為集體名詞,而不是複數名詞。例如 orooro 表示「很多人」或「一般人」,但永遠不會被用來表示「兩個人」。片語 rangya tu orooro (Template:Dl lang) 表示「琅野的人民」或「琅野的人口」,但不是「兩個來自琅野的人」或甚至「幾個來自琅野的人」。

由於語法上缺乏數量,名詞 haya (Template:Dl lang) 可指一隻鳥或幾隻鳥。如果要特意表示有多少隻鳥,可以通過提供數量來表達(利用量詞)。例如 pu ik tu haya (Template:Dl lang) 或 haya i ik (Template:Dl lang) 都解作兩隻鳥。

代詞Edit

第一人稱 說話者 敬語程度 備註
khi Template:Lang; Template:Lang 兩性 一般 女性通常使用諺文書寫這個代詞
mora Template:Lang 男性 一般
kigo Template:Lang 兩性 謙遜
kigomi Template:Lang 兩性 謙遜 最正式的敬稱
otto Template:Lang 男性 謙遜
ube Template:Lang; Template:Lang 女性 謙遜 偶然使用諺文書寫,看起來更女性化
第二人稱 說話者 敬語程度 備註
one Template:Lang 兩性 一般
ebi Template:Lang; Template:Lang 兩性 一般 女性第二人稱單數
ane Template:Lang 兩性 尊敬
anemi Template:Lang 兩性 恭敬
anerumi Template:Lang 兩性 恭敬 最正式的敬稱
soka Template:Lang 兩性 尊敬 男性第二人稱單數
imme Template:Lang; Template:Lang 兩性 尊敬 女性第二人稱單數; 通常使用諺文書寫這個代詞
第三人稱 說話者 敬語程度 備註
hoda Template:Lang 兩性 一般
oda Template:Lang 男性 一般 男性說話者用詞,hoda 的俗體; 極少用於書面語
suki Template:Lang; Template:Lang 兩性 一般 她; 偶然使用諺文書寫,看起來更女性化
aso Template:Lang 兩性 尊敬
asoda Template:Lang 兩性 恭敬
asobeda Template:Lang 兩性 恭敬 最正式的敬稱

代詞可以加上後綴成為集體代詞,例如 kigomi-te (Template:Dl lang) 「我們」和 asobeda-nun (Template:Dl lang) 「他們」。

後綴 說話者 敬語程度 備註
te Template:Lang; Template:Lang 兩性 一般
謙遜
一般代詞和謙遜代詞的後綴
常常用諺文書寫 (khite Template:Lang); 如果加在以漢字書寫的代詞後面,有時也會用漢字書寫 (morate Template:Lang); 如果加在以諺文書寫的代詞後面,幾乎不會使用漢字書寫 (kigomite Template:Lang)
nun Template:Lang; Template:Lang 兩性 尊敬 尊敬代詞的後綴
常常用漢字書寫 (sokanun Template:Lang) 除非是加在以諺文書寫的代詞後面 (aneruminun Template:Lang)
反身代詞Edit

琅野語有三個反身代詞 jishin, jikiosu,都是解作 "自己"。然而,這三個反身代詞在用法上有細微差別。

  • jishin (Template:Dl lang) 多是代表近距離的先行詞和常用作代表第一身先行詞;
  • jiki (Template:Dl lang) 代表遠距離的先行詞比代表近距離的先行詞多;
  • osu (Template:Dl lang) 比其他兩個反身代詞少用,而代表近距離和遠距離的先行詞同樣多。所代表的先行詞可以根據上下文來判斷,普遍是句子中的主語。
khi1 wi jishin2 ye kyoterü Template:Lang 1 保護 自己2
hoda1 wi jishin2 ye kyoterü Template:Lang 1 保護 自己2

下面例子示範 jishinjiki 在用法上的區別。

khi1 wi hoda wa jiki tu2 tobe ye kinuwei Template:Lang 1我自己的2 書給了他。
khi wi hoda1 wa jishin tu2 tobe ye kinuwei Template:Lang 我把 他自己的2 書給了 1
hoda1 wi khi wa jiki tu2 tobe ye kinuwei Template:Lang 1他自己的2 書給了我。
hoda wi khi1 wa jishin tu2 tobe ye kinuwei Template:Lang 他把 我自己的2 書給了 1

動詞Edit

動詞是琅野語最複雜的詞性類別。作為一個子句謂詞使用時其結構是:在動詞詞幹後最多加上六個後綴。如下表所示。

動詞詞幹 語氣 極性 語態 體貌 時態 敬語
yab-
-
陳述1
-
肯定
-
主動
-
簡單

現在
-
一般
yon-
-iss-
使役2
-om-
否定
-em-
被動
-an-
進行
-uwei
過去
-ya
尊敬
yer-
-ams-
審議3
-ot-
完成
-ioi
將來
hakk-
-uk-
勸告4
gub-
離開
-es-
祈使5
gok-
-us-
需要6
dot-
-atts-
責任7
khitj-
狩獵
-oh-
許可8
khetts-
-ag-
願望9
og-
-eik-
祈願10
it-
站立
-ich-
假設11
tsur-
-air-
懷疑12
tsog-
-ints-
潛在13
gar-
到達
-oir-
虛擬14
hont-
-eng-
嘗試15
  1. 陳述語氣 :
  2. 使役語氣 (-iss-):
  3. 審議語氣 (-ams-):
  4. 勸告語氣 (-uk-):
  5. 祈使語氣 (-es-): 表示命令或請求
  6. 需要語氣 (-us-):
  7. 責任語氣 (-atts-):
  8. 許可語氣 (-oh-):
  9. 願望語氣 (-ag-): 表達願望和慾望
  10. 祈願語氣 (-eik-): 表示希望
  11. 假設語氣 (-ich-):
  12. 懷疑語氣 (-air-): 表示懷疑或不確定性
  13. 潛在語氣 (-ints-): 表示說話者認為某事很有可能發生
  14. 虛擬語氣 (-oir-):
  15. 嘗試語氣 (-eng-):

以下是動詞 yabü (Template:Dl lang) 「吃」的變位表。敬語和語氣變位並未包括在表內以免表格太長。

動詞詞幹 + 變位 詞義
現在式 yabü Template:LangTemplate:Lang eat
過去式 yabuwei Template:LangTemplate:Lang ate
將來式 yabioi Template:LangTemplate:Lang will eat
現在進行式 yabanü Template:LangTemplate:Lang is eating
過去進行式 yabanuwei Template:LangTemplate:Lang was eating
將來進行式 yabanioi Template:LangTemplate:Lang will be eating
現在完成式 yabotü Template:LangTemplate:Lang have eaten
過去完成式 yabotuwei Template:LangTemplate:Lang had eaten
將來完成式 yabotioi Template:LangTemplate:Lang will have eaten
被動現在式 yabemü Template:LangTemplate:Lang is eaten
被動過去式 yabemuwei Template:LangTemplate:Lang was eaten
被動將來式 yabemioi Template:LangTemplate:Lang will be eaten
被動現在進行式 yabemanü Template:LangTemplate:Lang is being eaten
被動過去進行式 yabemanuwei Template:LangTemplate:Lang was being eaten
被動將來進行式 yabemanioi Template:LangTemplate:Lang will be being eaten
被動現在完成式 yabemotü Template:LangTemplate:Lang have been eaten
被動過去完成式 yabemotuwei Template:LangTemplate:Lang had been eaten
被動將來完成式 yabemotioi Template:LangTemplate:Lang will have been eaten
否定現在式 yabomü Template:LangTemplate:Lang do not eat
否定過去式 yabomuwei Template:LangTemplate:Lang did not eat
否定將來式 yabomioi Template:LangTemplate:Lang will not eat
否定現在進行式 yabomanü Template:LangTemplate:Lang is not eating
否定過去進行式 yabomanuwei Template:LangTemplate:Lang was not eating
否定將來進行式 yabomanioi Template:LangTemplate:Lang will not be eating
否定現在完成式 yabomotü Template:LangTemplate:Lang have not eaten
否定過去完成式 yabomotuwei Template:LangTemplate:Lang had not eaten
否定將來完成式 yabomotioi Template:LangTemplate:Lang will not have eaten
否定被動現在式 yabomemü Template:LangTemplate:Lang is not eaten
否定被動過去式 yabomemuwei Template:LangTemplate:Lang was not eaten
否定被動將來式 yabomemioi Template:LangTemplate:Lang will not be eaten
否定被動現在進行式 yabomemanü Template:LangTemplate:Lang is not being eaten
否定被動過去進行式 yabomemanuwei Template:LangTemplate:Lang was not being eaten
否定被動將來進行式 yabomemanioi Template:LangTemplate:Lang will not be being eaten
否定被動現在完成式 yabomemotü Template:LangTemplate:Lang have not been eaten
否定被動過去完成式 yabomemotuwei Template:LangTemplate:Lang had not been eaten
否定被動將來完成式 yabomemotioi Template:LangTemplate:Lang will have not been eaten
複合動詞Edit

琅野語有很多複合動詞,反映出語法上的黏着特性。琅野語複合動詞是由多個詞組成的,作為單一動詞使用。複合動詞的主要部份是一個連接分詞形態的動詞,帶出大部份詞義,並判定語法參數。另一部份是一個向量詞,通過詞形變化來表達時態、語氣或者體貌,但只帶出細微的詞義。

例如,在 yuttsubirü (Template:Dl lang) 「開始閱讀」,向量詞 birü (Template:Dl lang) 「開始」 根據時態、語氣和體貌作詞形變化。而主要動詞 yuttsü (Template:Dl lang) 「閱讀」 則保持不變的連接分詞形態 yuttsu (Template:Dl lang)。

定語動詞Edit

琅野語定語動詞是用來修飾名詞(給出屬性)的定語動詞,而不是表達獨立意思的謂語動詞。和中文一樣,琅野語也容許一般動詞用作定語。在琅野語中,謂語動詞置於從句的句末,在名詞之後,但定語動詞卻在名詞之前,詞序剛好和中文的關係從句一樣。

例如:

ne oro wi dotuwei (Template:Dl lang)
"那人來了。"

ne oro-wi dot-uwei
人-主格 來-過去

ne dotuweit oro wi (Template:Dl lang)
"來了的那人"

ne dot-uwei-t oro-wi
來-過去-定語 人-主格

繫詞Edit

琅野語的繫詞 (Template:Dl lang) 是一個近似動詞的特別詞,能將句子中的主語和謂語 (主語補語) 連起來。在琅野語句子中,繫詞 通常是用來將一件事物和另一件事物等同起來,即是「A 是 B」。

例如:

khi wi ontso rü (Template:Dl lang)
"我是士兵。"

主語 謂語
khi-wi ontso
我-主格 士兵 繫詞

繫詞 也能將謂語形容詞和被修飾的名詞或代詞連起來。

例如:

muse wi ha'i rü (Template:Dl lang)
"雪是白的。"

主語 謂語
muse-wi ha'i
雪-主格 白的 繫詞

指示詞、不定代詞Edit

指示詞有 i-ne-、 和 ko- 三個系列。i- (近稱) 系列指示距離說話者較近,但距離聆聽者較遠的事物, ne- (中稱) 系列指示距離說話者較遠,但距離聆聽者較近的事物, 而 ko- (遠稱) 系列指示距離說話者和聆聽者都很遠的事物。ma- (疑問稱) 將指示詞變成對應的疑問稱形態。

近稱 (i-) 中稱 (ne-) 遠稱 (ko-) 疑問稱 (ma-) Negative
(mu-)
Universal
(so-)
Assertive
existential
(di-)
Elective
existential
(ha-)
形容詞 i Template:Lang
ne Template:Lang
ko Template:Lang
那 (遠處)
ma Template:Lang
什麼
mu Template:Lang
no
so Template:Lang
every
di Template:Lang
some
ha Template:Lang
any
事物 (-ko) iko Template:Lang
這個
neko Template:Lang
那個
koko Template:Lang
那個 (遠處)
mako Template:Lang
哪個
muko Template:Lang
nothing
soko Template:Lang
everything
diko Template:Lang
something
hako Template:Lang
anything
人稱 (-we) iwe Template:Lang
這人
newe Template:Lang
那人
kowe Template:Lang
那人 (遠處)
mawe Template:Lang
muwe Template:Lang
nobody
sowe Template:Lang
everybody
diwe Template:Lang
somebody
hawe Template:Lang
anybody
地方 (-su) isu Template:Lang
這裡
nesu Template:Lang
那裡
kosu Template:Lang
那裡 (遠處)
masu Template:Lang
哪裡
musu Template:Lang
nowhere
sosu Template:Lang
everywhere
disu Template:Lang
somewhere
hasu Template:Lang
anywhere
時候 (-tsa) itsa Template:Lang
現在
netsa Template:Lang
那時
kotsa Template:Lang
那時 (另一時候)
matsa Template:Lang
何時
mutsa Template:Lang
never
sotsa Template:Lang
always
ditsa Template:Lang
sometime
hatsa Template:Lang
anytime
數量 (-do) ido Template:Lang
這麼多
nedo Template:Lang
那麼多
kodo Template:Lang
那麼多 (另一數量)
mado Template:Lang
多少
dine Template:Lang
somehow
方式 (-ne) ine Template:Lang
這麼
nene Template:Lang
那麼
kone Template:Lang
那麼 (另一方式)
mane Template:Lang
怎麼
種類 (-chi) ichi Template:Lang
這樣
nechi Template:Lang
那樣
kochi Template:Lang
那樣 (另一種類)
machi Template:Lang
什麼樣
原因 (-ka) maka Template:Lang
為什麼

因為指示詞修飾名詞,所以置於名詞之前; 因此 i maro (Template:Dl lang) 是「這石」, ne maro (Template:Dl lang) 是「那石」,而 ko maro (Template:Dl lang) 是「那石(遠處)」。

形容詞Edit

琅野語中所有形容詞都是以 -i 結尾。例如 kho'i (Template:Dl lang) 「大的」和 hyogi (Template:Dl lang) 「重的」。形容詞的語法作用是修飾名詞或代詞,提供更多有關那個名詞或代詞所指示對象的資料。琅野語的形容詞是一個開放的詞性類別,新的形容詞能夠利用衍生方法來產生。

琅野語形容詞一般可分為兩個主要用途:

  • 定語形容詞是名詞短語的一部份,在被修飾的名詞之前。例如, 在 kho'i haku (Template:Dl lang) 「大的牛」中,kho'i 是個定語形容詞。因為琅野語是主語後置的語言,所以定語形容詞永遠在被修飾的名詞之前。
  • 謂語形容詞和被修飾的名詞或代詞經過繫詞連在一起。例如,在 haku wi kho'i rü (Template:Dl lang) 「牛是大的」中,kho'i 是謂語形容詞。
形容詞詞序Edit

在琅野語中,定語形容詞通常以下列順序排列,當然亦容許其他排列次序:

  1. 指示詞
  2. 強調詞 (描述程度的副詞)
  3. 意見
  4. 大小
  5. 年齡
  6. 形狀
  7. 顏色
  8. 專有形容詞 (例如:國籍, 起源, 材料)
  9. 名詞修飾語 (作為形容詞用的名詞)
  10. 中心名詞

例如:

i wa'i nitsi gani haya (Template:Dl lang)
"這好的小紅鳥"

指示詞 強調詞 意見 大小 年齡 形狀 顏色 專有形容詞 名詞修飾語 中心名詞
i
wa'i
好的
nitsi
小的
gani
紅的
haya
比較級Edit

琅野語形容詞和中文一樣,沒有比較級形態。當比較兩件事物時 (名詞片語1名詞片語2),在一個以繫詞結尾的句子中,被比較的名詞片語 (名詞片語2) 和後面緊接的比較格助詞 pe 會處於主語名詞片語 (名詞片語1) 和謂語形容詞之間。

例如:

ne iku wi i haya pe kho'i rü (Template:Dl lang)
"那狗比這鳥大。"

名詞片語1 名詞片語2 謂語
ne iku-wi i haya-pe kho'i
狗-主格 鳥-比較格 大的 繫詞
最高級Edit

琅野語形容詞也沒有最高級形態。在形容詞前加上副詞 tsum (Template:Dl lang) 「最」 來表達最高比較級。

例如:

ne iku wi tsum kho'i rü (Template:Dl lang)
"那狗是最大的。"

ne iku-wi tsum kho'i
狗-主格 大的 繫詞

副詞Edit

副詞是任何用來修飾動詞、形容詞、從句、句子和其他副詞的單詞。大部份琅野語副詞都是在對應的形容詞後面加上 -m 而衍生出來的。例如, nepi (Template:Dl lang; 「憤怒的」) 衍生出 nepim (Template:Dl lang; 「憤怒地」) 和 wa'i (Template:Dl lang; 「良好的」) 衍生出 wa'im (Template:Dl lang 「良好地」)。這個副詞衍生方法在琅野語中雖然很常見,但也有某些形容詞是不能衍生出對應的副詞。

助詞Edit

琅野語的助詞屬後置詞,緊隨在被修飾的詞之後。

格助詞Edit
助詞 僧訣假借 功能
wi Template:Lang 主格; 主語
wei Template:Lang 包含主格; 也
ye Template:Lang 賓格; 直接賓語
wa Template:Lang 哇洼 與格; 間接賓語
tu Template:Lang 覩都妬 屬格; 擁有
yo Template:Lang 舁妤 工具格; 用; 以
ti Template:Lang 方位格; 地點
hi Template:Lang 向格; 方向
yu Template:Lang 庾喩愈 離格; 從; 由
to Template:Lang 忉朷 直到; 遠到; 表明時間界線或者地點界限
pe Template:Lang 比較格
其他助詞Edit
助詞 僧訣假借 功能
ta Template:Lang 連接詞; 和
tai Template:Lang 並且; 此外
wai Template:Lang 崴嵬 為了
tsoi Template:Lang 栽哉 當作; 作為
kwe Template:Lang 圭邽 關於; 對於
ten Template:Lang 雖然; 但是
gwa Template:Lang 可是; 不過
yai Template:Lang 因為
khui Template:Lang 巋虧 幸虧
mo Template:Lang 芼皃氂 疑問句
ho Template:Lang 号毫 附加疑問句; 徵詢同意或確定的答覆
re Template:Lang 強調; 肯定
yei Template:Lang 曀曵 間接引語

數詞Edit

The system of Rangyan numerals is the system of number names used in the Rangyan language. The Rangyan numerals in writing are entirely based on the Chinese numerals and the grouping of large numbers follow the Chinese tradition of grouping by myriads (10000) rather than thousands (1000). Two sets of pronunciations for the numerals exist in Rangyan: one is based on Sino-Rangyan readings of the Chinese characters and the other is based on the native Rangyan readings.

The distinction between the two sets of numerals is very important. Everything that can be counted will use one of the two sets, but seldom both. For example, the native Rangyan numerals are used for the hours while the Sino-Rangyan numerals are used to denote the minute of time, therefore, jopu-zhi uzhipruk-pun (Template:Lang) means "12:56". The native Rangyan numerals are also used for the five-minute interval of time khük (Template:Dl lang), therefore, he-zhi me-khük (Template:Lang) means "8:05" while he-zhi cho-khük (Template:Lang) means "8:15".

When denoting the age of a person, one will use yumpi (Template:Dl lang) for the native Rangyan numerals, and sei (Template:Dl lang) for Sino-Rangyan. For example, chojohe yumpi (Template:Lang) and samzhippat sei (Template:Lang) both mean "thirty-eight years old".

基本數詞Edit

琅野語寫數字的方法有兩種:阿拉伯數字 (1, 2, 3) 或漢數字 (一, 二, 三)。阿拉伯數字多用於橫寫,而漢數字則多用於豎寫。

數字 漢字寫法 固有詞訓讀 漢字詞音讀
0 Template:Lang moi reng
1 Template:Lang me it
2 Template:Lang pu i
3 Template:Lang cho sam
4 Template:Lang ke shi
5 Template:Lang tha u
6 Template:Lang che ruk
7 Template:Lang ju chit
8 Template:Lang he pat
9 Template:Lang kon kyu
10 Template:Lang jo zhip
100 Template:Lang sottso pak
1000 Template:Lang hattso chen
10000 Template:Lang mittso men

The number 4 is considered unlucky in Rangyan, as 4, pronounced shi in Sino-Rangyan, is a homophone for death (Template:Lang). The number 13 is sometimes considered unlucky, though this is a carryover from Western tradition.

In large numbers, elements are combined from largest to smallest, and zeros are implied.

數字   漢字寫法 固有詞訓讀 漢字詞音讀
11   Template:Lang jo me zhip it
17   Template:Lang jo ju zhip chit
151   Template:Lang sottso tha-jo me pak u-zhip it
302   Template:Lang cho-sottso pu sam-pak i
469   Template:Lang ke-sottso che-jo kon shi-pak ruk-zhip kyu
2025   Template:Lang pu-hattso pu-jo tha i-chen i-zhip u
十進制小數Edit

琅野語有一套固有詞小數數字系統。

數字 漢字寫法 固有詞訓讀 漢字詞音讀
10-1 (0.1) Template:Lang hittsi pun
10-2 (0.01) Template:Lang wi'tsi ri

This system, however, is not often seen in modern usage except for representing decimal fractions of rate or discount. For example, cho-pun u-ri heirün (Template:Lang) "35% discount". Instead, decimal fractions are typically written with either Chinese numerals (in vertical writing) or Arabic numerals (in horizontal writing), preceded by a decimal point, and are read as successive digits, as in Western convention. Note that, in written form, they can be combined with either the traditional system of expressing numerals (42.195 四十二・一九五), in which powers of ten are written, or with the place value system, which uses zero (50.04 五〇・〇四). In both cases, however, the reading follows the traditional system (kejopu tem me kon tha for 42.195; thajo tem moi ke for 50.04).

分數Edit

To construct a fraction, the denominator is written first, followed by pun tu (Template:Lang) "parts of" and then the numerator. This is the opposite of how fractions are read in English, which is numerator first. Each half of the fraction is written the same as a whole number. Mixed numbers are written with the whole-number part first, followed by ta (Template:Dl lang) "and", then the fractional part.

分數 寫法 讀音
2/3 Template:Lang cho-pun tu pu
3 5/6 Template:Lang cho ta che-pun tu tha
序數Edit

表達序數的方法有兩種:在漢數字前加上前綴 tai (Template:Dl lang) 「次序」;在固有數字後加上後綴 hin (Template:Dl lang)。

序數 固有詞 漢字詞
寫法 讀音 寫法 讀音
1st Template:Lang me-hin Template:Lang tai-it
2nd Template:Lang pu-hin Template:Lang tai-i
負數Edit

在數字前面加上前綴 byu (Template:Dl lang) 「負」 來表達負數。

大寫數字Edit

As with Chinese numerals, there exists in Rangyan a separate set of hanji for numerals called daishyuji (Template:Dl lang) used in legal and financial documents to prevent unscrupulous individuals from adding a stroke or two, turning a one into a two or a three. The formal numbers are identical to the Chinese formal numbers except for minor stroke variations. In some cases, the digit 1 is explicitly written like Template:Lang for 110, as opposed to Template:Lang in common writing.

數字 小寫 大寫
常用 已廢棄
1 Template:Lang Template:Lang Template:Lang
2 Template:Lang Template:Lang Template:Lang
3 Template:Lang Template:Lang Template:Lang
4 Template:Lang Template:Lang Template:Lang
5 Template:Lang Template:Lang
6 Template:Lang Template:Lang
7 Template:Lang Template:Lang
8 Template:Lang Template:Lang
9 Template:Lang Template:Lang
10 Template:Lang Template:Lang
100 Template:Lang Template:Lang
1000 Template:Lang Template:Lang
10000 Template:Lang Template:Lang

句子及從句句式Edit

從句結構Edit

關係從句Edit

琅野語不使用關係代詞來將關係從句和對應的先行詞聯繫在一起。反而將關係從句視作定語動詞來直接修飾名詞片語,並和定語形容詞一樣處於名詞片語之前。

例如:

aso wi ne dotuweit oro ye bumuwei (Template:Dl lang)
"他曾看見那個來了的人。"

aso-wi ne dot-uwei-t oro-ye bum-uwei
他-主格 來-過去-定語 人-賓格 看見-過去

引語結構Edit

直接引語Edit

直接引語是一句 (或幾句) 由第一說話者原封不動地引述的說話 (或思想)。在琅野語中,直接引語前後要加上引號,而句末會提及或暗示直接引語的說話者。

khi wi ajaboti ye yabanü aso wi yeruwei (Template:Dl lang)
"他曾說:「我正在吃早餐。」"

直接引語從句
khi-wi ajaboti-ye yab-an-ü aso-wi yer-uwei
我-主格 早餐-賓格 吃-進行-現在 他-主格 說-過去
間接引語Edit

在琅野語中,間接引語不用加上引號,並不以原說話者的方式來表達引述句子或問句。當說話者和引述者不是同一個人的時候,間接引語內的人稱會作對應改變。

aso wi ajaboti ye yabanü yei aso wi yeruwei (Template:Dl lang)
"他曾說他正在吃早餐。"

間接引語從句 助詞
aso-wi ajaboti-ye yab-an-ü yei aso-wi yer-uwei
他-主格 早餐-賓格 吃-進行-現在 他-主格 說-過去

文字系統Edit

The modern Rangyan writing system uses two main scripts:

  • Hanji (Template:Dl lang), ideographs from Chinese characters, and
  • Yenmun (Template:Dl lang), a Korean phonemic alphabet organised into syllabic blocks that make up words.

To a lesser extent, modern written Rangyan also uses the Latin alphabet. Examples include abbreviations such as "CD" and "DVD".

Romanised Rangyan, called romaji (Template:Dl lang), is frequently used by foreign students of Rangyan, who have not yet mastered the two main scripts, and by native speakers for computer input.

文字體系Edit

漢字Edit

諺文Edit

Yenmun is a phonemic alphabet organized into syllabic blocks. Each block consists of at least two of the 24 yenmun letters (jimu), with at least one each of the 14 consonants and 10 vowels. These syllabic blocks can be written horizontally from left to right as well as vertically from top to bottom in columns from right to left. Originally, the alphabet had several additional letters for pre-modern Korean, however, these letters have never been used in Rangyan.

字母Edit

Jimu (Template:Dl lang) are the units that make up the yenmun alphabet. Ji means letter or character, and mo means mother, so the name suggests that the jimu are the building-blocks of the script.

There are 39 jimu, of which 24 are equivalent to letters of the Latin alphabet. The other 15 jimu are clusters of two or sometimes three of these letters. Of the 24 simple jimu, 14 are consonants (Template:Dl lang; "child sounds") and 10 are vowels (Template:Dl lang; "mother sounds"). 5 of the simple consonant letters are doubled to form the five voiced consonants (see below). The 10 basic vowel jimu can be combined to form 10 more complex ones. Here is a summary:

  • 14 simple consonant letters: ㄱ, ㅋ, ㅇ, ㄷ, ㅌ, ㄴ, ㅂ, ㅍ, ㅁ, ㅈ, ㅊ, ㅅ, ㅎ, ㄹ
  • 5 double letters (voiced): ㄲ, ㄸ, ㅃ, ㅉ, ㅆ
  • 6 simple vowel letters: ㅏ, ㅓ, ㅗ, ㅜ, ㅡ, ㅣ
  • 4 simple iotized vowel letters (semi consonant-semi vowel): ㅑ, ㅕ, ㅛ, ㅠ
  • 10 compound letters: ㅐ, ㅒ, ㅔ, ㅖ, ㅘ, ㅙ, ㅚ, ㅝ, ㅞ, ㅟ

Four of the simple vowel jimu are derived by means of a short stroke to signify iotation (a preceding i sound): ㅑ /ja/, ㅕ /jɛ/, ㅛ /jɔ/, and ㅠ /ju/. These four are counted as part of the 24 simple jimu because the iotating stroke taken out of context does not represent /j/. In fact, there is no separate jimu for /j/.

Of the simple consonants, ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅍ, and ㅊ are aspirated derivatives of ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, and ㅈ, respectively, formed by combining the unaspirated letters with an extra stroke.

The doubled letters are ㄲ, ㄸ, ㅃ, ㅉ, ㅆ. Double jimu do not represent geminate consonants, but rather a voiced phonation.

字母順序Edit

The alphabetical order of yenmun does not mix consonants and vowels as Western alphabets do. Rather, the order is that of the Indic type, first velar consonants, then coronals, labials, sibilants, etc. However, the vowels come after the consonants rather than before them as in the Indic systems.

歷史上順序Edit

The consonantal order of yenmun in 1446 in the document titled Funmintsengim (Template:Dl lang) "The Proper Sounds for the Instruction of the People" was,

ㄱ ㅋ ㆁ ㄷ ㅌ ㄴ ㅂ ㅍ ㅁ ㅈ ㅊ ㅅ ㆆ ㅎ ㅇ ㄹ ㅿ

and the order of vowels was,

ㆍ ㅡ ㅣ ㅗ ㅏ ㅜ ㅓ ㅛ ㅑ ㅠ ㅕ
現今琅野順序Edit

In the Rangyan order, double jimu are placed immediately after their single counterparts. No distinction is made between silent and nasal ㅇ:

ㄱ ㄲ ㅋ ㅇ ㄷ ㄸ ㅌ ㄴ ㅂ ㅃ ㅍ ㅁ ㅈ ㅉ ㅊ ㅅ ㅆ ㅎ ㄹ
ㅏ ㅐ ㅑ ㅒ ㅓ ㅔ ㅕ ㅖ ㅗ ㅘ ㅙ ㅚ ㅛ ㅜ ㅝ ㅞ ㅟ ㅠ ㅡ ㅣ 

The modern monophthongal vowels come first, with the derived forms interspersed according to their form: first added i, then iotized, then iotized with added i. Diphthongs and triphthongs beginning with w are ordered according to their spelling, as ㅏ or ㅓ plus a second vowel, not as separate digraphs.

The order of the final jimu is,

(null) ㄱ ㅇ ㄷ ㄴ ㅂ ㅁ ㅅ ㄹ

"Null" stands for no final jimu, and the final jimu ㅅ and ㄹ can only be found in foreign loanwords.

文字排列方向Edit

文字改革Edit

羅馬化Edit

琅野語有好幾種羅馬化方案,其中為英語使用者而設計的麥肯齊式方案 makkhenzhi-sik romaji (Template:Dl lang) 是在琅野國內外最常用的現存標準方案。

聲母
麥肯齊式 k g kh (null) t d th n p b ph m ts j ch s, sh z, zh h, f r
國際音標 k g (null) t d n p b m ts~tɕ dz~dʑ tsʰ~tɕʰ s~ɕ z~ʑ h~ç~ɸ ɾ
韻腹
麥肯齊式 a ai ya yai e ei ye yei o wa wai oi yo u we wei ui, wi yu ü i
國際音標 a ja jaɪ ɛ jeɪ ɔ wa waɪ ɔɪ u~ʊ weɪ uɪ~wi ju~jʊ ʉ i~ɪ
韻尾
麥肯齊式 k ng t n p m s l
國際音標 ŋ n m s l

西里爾化Edit

為俄語使用者而設計的索科洛夫式方案 sokorop-sik kirilji (Template:Dl lang) 是官方標準的琅野語西里爾化方案。

聲母
索科洛夫式 к г кх (null) т д тх н п б пх м ц дз цх с з x, ф р
國際音標 k g (null) t d n p b m ts~tɕ dz~dʑ tsʰ~tɕʰ s~ɕ z~ʑ h~ç~ɸ ɾ
韻腹
索科洛夫式 а ай я яй э эй е ей о уа уай ой ё у уэ уэй уй, уи ю ы и
國際音標 a ja jaɪ ɛ jeɪ ɔ wa waɪ ɔɪ u~ʊ weɪ uɪ~wi ju~jʊ ʉ i~ɪ
韻尾
索科洛夫式 к нъ т н п м с л
國際音標 ŋ n m s l

僧訣假借Edit

Süngkwetkatsya (Template:Dl lang), also known as Kagakatsya (Template:Dl lang) after the first two syllables, is an archaic writing system that represents the Rangyan language in hanji. It was mainly used by Rangyan monks to render Buddhist sutras written in Sanskrit into understandable Rangyan, and occasionally used by government officials as a tool to comprehend texts written in Classical Chinese.

The süngkwetkatsya script employs hanji for their phonetic value rather than their meaning to indicate Rangyan verb endings and other grammatical markers that are different in Rangyan from Chinese. Several hanji can represent the same sound, the choice of which to use often being decided for stylistic reasons. And this made both the meaning and pronunciation difficult to parse, and was one reason why the system was gradually abandoned, to be replaced with yenmun originated from Korea, in the late 15th century. In this respect, it faced problems analogous to those that confronted early efforts to represent the Japanese and Korean language with hanji, due to grammatical differences between these languages and Chinese.

Below is the table of süngkwetkatsya where one character represents one syllable.

k g kh (null) t d th n p b ph m c j ch s z h r y w
a 他佗 娜拏 吒左咤 叉詫 娑沙 訶賀 也惹野 哇洼 a
e e
o 忉朷 芼皃氂 号毫 舁妤 o
u 覩都妬 布補 暮慕 庾喩愈 u
ü ü
i 伊爾 哩里利 i
ai 崴嵬 ai
ei 閉篦 吠陛 隸禮 曀曵 ei
oi 栽哉 oi
ui 巋虧 尾味 ui
ya 舍捨 ya
ye ye
yo yo
yu 戍輸 yu
wa wa
we 圭邽 we
k g kh (null) t d th n p b ph m c j ch s z h r y w

其他Edit

範例文本Edit

世界人權宣言(第一條)Edit

「人皆生而自由;在尊嚴及權利上均各平等。」
Template:Lang
mogi oro wi bomün yu jiyu'i rü tai tsonyem ta gwenri ti bengtüng'i rü.

mogi oro-wi bomü-n-yu jiyu'i tai tsonyem-ta gwenri-ti bengtüng'i
全部的 人-主語 出生-名詞化- 自由的 繫詞 連接詞 尊嚴- 權利- 平等的 繫詞

「人各賦有理性良知,誠應和睦相處,情同手足。」
Template:Lang
oro wi riseng ta rangshim ye thenpyuim kibemotü tai dungpo tu tsengjin yo mobim hangdungnusü.

oro-wi riseng-ta rangshim-ye thenpyu-im kib-em-ot-ü tai dungpo-tu tsengjin-yo mobim hangdung-n-us-ü
人-主語 理性- 良心-賓語 天賦地 賦予-被動-完成-現在 連接詞 同胞-屬格 精神-工具格 互相地 行動-做-需要-現在

特色橫幅Edit

"This language was once featured."
Template:Lang
i yoyen wi kum zhyokainemuweiya

i yoyen-wi kum zhyokai-n-em-uwei-ya
語言-主語 曾經 介紹-做-被動-過去-敬語

"Thanks to its level of quality, plausibility and usage capabilities, it has been voted as featured."
Template:Lang
phimtsit ta khashinseng ta khayongseng tu suibeng khui, iko wi düksik tsoi ritsemotüya.

phimtsit ta khashinseng ta khayongseng tu suibeng khui
品質 可信性 可用性 水平 幸虧
iko-wi düksik tsoi rits-em-ot-ü-ya
這個-主語 特色 作為 選出-被動-完成-現在-敬語

巴別塔Edit

  1. Now the whole earth had one language and the same words.
    Template:Lang
    kokotsan, mogi oro wi bomi yoyen ye yeranuweiya.
    "At that time, all mankind was speaking the same language."
  2. And as people migrated from the east, they found a plain in the land of Shinar and settled there.
    Template:Lang
    orooro wi tungpang yu thinnuwei ton, shinal tu gada ti bengya ye kabuuttuwei tai kosu ti jorujimuweiya.
    "When people moved from the east, (they) found a plain in the land of Shinar and settled there."
  3. And they said to one another, "Come, let us make bricks, and burn them thoroughly." And they had brick for stone, and bitumen for mortar.
  4. Then they said, "Come, let us build ourselves a city and a tower with its top in the heavens, and let us make a name for ourselves, lest we be dispersed over the face of the whole earth."
  5. And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of man had built.
  6. And the Lord said, "Behold, they are one people, and they have all one language, and this is only the beginning of what they will do. And nothing that they propose to do will now be impossible for them.
  7. Come, let us go down and there confuse their language, so that they may not understand one another's speech."
  8. So the Lord dispersed them from there over the face of all the earth, and they left off building the city.
  9. Therefore its name was called Babel, because there the Lord confused the language of all the earth. And from there the Lord dispersed them over the face of all the earth.

論語Edit

  • Confucius said: "To learn and then practise it time and again is a pleasure, is it not? To have friends come from afar to share each other learning is a pleasure, is it not? To be unperturbed when not appreciated by others is gentlemanly, is it not?"
    Template:Lang
    「學布伊皋曳罧伊窂瞢芼。友氐窂瞢芼。識窂麛瞢典保瞢君子窂瞢芼。」(僧訣假借版本)
    Tsi wi yerü, "Bopu iko ye shim samü, tum patsui romü mo? Eke wi hüminhen yu dotü, tum hatti romü mo? Naromemü ten nepomü, tum kuntsi romü mo?"
  • Confucius said:"To learn without thinking, one will be lost in his learning. To think without learning, one will be imperilled."
    Template:Lang
    Tsi wi yerü, "Bopü ten upomü, immopün ti nalrü. Upü ten bopomü, numsu ti nalrü."
  • Confucius said: "While your parents are alive, do not journey afar. If a journey has to be made, your direction must be told."
    Template:Lang
    Tsi wi yerü, "Tsokoüwi wi jaiseinü, hümim yusonomü. Hümim yusonügattsü, yuso tu hen ye yottattsü."

參見Edit

Template:Dl see also

外部連結Edit

Template:Dl external links